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Management Design Journal

Management Design Journal

No 21 Q1 2022

Employment, economic development, and productivity

Regional and national employment measures may be economic indicators (Hensvik, Le Barbanchon, & Rathelot, 2021).  Hensvik et al. (2021) measure how the health pandemic affected employment markets with an analysis of posted vacancies.  Trommer, Schaeper, and Fabian (2021) explore complexity and novelty in different types of work.  Brautzsch and Holtemöller (2021) examine how international trade barriers effect regional employment.

Growth of information communication technologies may signal regional economic development (Karaman Aksentijević, Ježić, & Zaninović, 2021).  Karaman Aksentijević et al. (2021) explore the relationship between information communication technology and macroeconomic development.  Zhang, Lu, Tao, and Wang (2021) provide a time series analysis of the relationship between search engine prevalence and returns for cryptocurrency.  Camera and Gioffré (2021) provide an assessment of the effects of the restrictions on economic and social activities put in place during the health pandemic.

Measures of productivity and growth in economic development may be represented in employment indicators (Caleiro, 2021).  Caleiro (2021) examine the unemployment rate during the health pandemic as an indicator of consumer confidence.  Ziesemer (2021) presents economic models for research and development productivity measurement in domestic and foreign investments.  Al-Dalahmeh, Sarihasan, and Dajnoki (2021)study occupational status based on the demographics of educational attainment and gender of immigrants.





Al-Dalahmeh, M., Sarihasan, I., & Dajnoki, K. (2021). The influence of gender and educational attainment differences on international migrants’ occupational status in OECD countries. Economies, 9(3), 126.

Brautzsch, H.-U., & Holtemöller, O. (2021). International trade barriers and regional employment: the case of a no-deal Brexit. Journal of Economic Structures, 10(1), 11. doi:10.1186/s40008-021-00241-9

Caleiro, A. B. (2021). Learning to classify the consumer confidence indicator (in Portugal). Economies, 9(3), 125.

Camera, G., & Gioffré, A. (2021). The economic impact of lockdowns: A theoretical assessment. Journal of Mathematical Economics, 102552. doi:

Hensvik, L., Le Barbanchon, T., & Rathelot, R. (2021). Job search during the COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Public Economics, 194, 104349. doi:

Karaman Aksentijević, N., Ježić, Z., & Zaninović, P. A. (2021). The effects of information and communication technology (ICT) use on human development—a macroeconomic approach. Economies, 9(3), 128.

Trommer, M., Schaeper, H., & Fabian, G. (2021). KWReq—a new instrument for measuring knowledge work requirements of higher education graduates. Journal for Labour Market Research, 55(1), 20. doi:10.1186/s12651-021-00303-2

Zhang, X., Lu, F., Tao, R., & Wang, S. (2021). The time-varying causal relationship between the Bitcoin market and internet attention. Financial Innovation, 7(1), 66. doi:10.1186/s40854-021-00275-9

Ziesemer, T. H. W. (2021). Semi-endogenous growth models with domestic and foreign private and public R&D linked to VECMs. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 30(6), 621-642. doi:10.1080/10438599.2020.1760423

Technology measures for economic growth

Recent research evaluates indicators for measuring economic growth (Erena, Kalko, & Debele, 2021).  Erena et al. (2021) explain the importance of the manufacturing sector to the economic growth of economies.  Erena et al. (2021) measure technical and productivity indicators for manufacturing sectors as a measure of economic growth.  Saeed (2021) explores relationships between natural resource dependencies and economic growth.

Technology research may provide tools for organizational and individual recovery in the pandemic (Tao et al., 2022; Thi Viet Nguyen, Nguyen, Ho, Thi Nguyen, & Van Nguyen, 2021).  Thi Viet Nguyen et al. (2021) examine capital structures of firms to determine relationships on market share and competitiveness.  Tao et al. (2022) make recommendations to improve public health during the pandemic by promoting physical activity. Khan (2021) evaluates the performance of companies after the health pandemic.

Technology research may support research in a number of areas (Cn & Singh, 2021; Zachariah et al., 2016).  Cn and Singh (2021) explore the fixed point theorem and in measuring partial metric spaces.  Zachariah et al. (2016) evaluate courses designed for operational research, influence policy, and influence practice.  Schnitzler et al. (2021) explore the impact to society in a number of areas throughout the health pandemic.



Cn, R., & Singh, B. (2021). Fixed Point Theorems in Partial Metric Spaces for Four Weakly Compatible Maps. Turkish Journal of Analysis and Number Theory, 9(3), 38-41. doi:10.12691/tjant-9-3-1

Erena, O. T., Kalko, M. M., & Debele, S. A. (2021). Technical efficiency, technological progress and productivity growth of large and medium manufacturing industries in Ethiopia: A data envelopment analysis. Cogent Economics & Finance, 9(1), 1997160. doi:10.1080/23322039.2021.1997160

Khan, M. M. (2021). Financial performance of FMCG companies-Post COVID-19. International Journal of Economics and Management Systems, 6, 518-526.

Saeed, K. A. (2021). Revisiting the natural resource curse: A cross-country growth study. Cogent Economics & Finance, 9(1), 2000555. doi:10.1080/23322039.2021.2000555

Schnitzler, L., Janssen, L. M. M., Evers, S. M. A. A., Jackson, L. J., Paulus, A. T. G., Roberts, T. E., & Pokhilenko, I. (2021). The broader societal impacts of COVID-19 and the growing importance of capturing these in health economic analyses. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 37(1), e43. doi:10.1017/S0266462321000155

Tao, D., Gao, Y., Li, F., Liang, W., Jiao, J., Huang, W. Y., . . . Baker, J. S. (2022). Physical Inactivity, COVID-19, and the Future of Global Health. Is Dancing the Solution? Journal of Physical Activity Research, 7(1), 7-9. doi:10.12691/jpar-7-1-2

Thi Viet Nguyen, N., Nguyen, C. T. K., Ho, P. T. M., Thi Nguyen, H., & Van Nguyen, D. (2021). How does capital structure affect firm’s market competitiveness? Cogent Economics & Finance, 9(1), 2002501. doi:10.1080/23322039.2021.2002501

Zachariah, R., Rust, S., Berger, S. D., Guillerm, N., Bissell, K., Delaunois, P., . . . Ramsay, A. (2016). Building Global Capacity for Conducting Operational Research Using the SORT IT Model: Where and Who? PLoS One, 11(8), e0160837. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0160837

Evaluations of participation labour economies in economic development programs

Studies in the effects of the health pandemic on labour economies introduce new models for evaluating labour economic growth (Camera & Gioffré, 2021).  Camera and Gioffré (2021) study the economy, herd immunity, and the impact of lockdowns during the health pandemic.  Hensvik, Le Barbanchon, and Rathelot (2021) study the influx of vaccines per country and the increase of job searches in the labour market.

Assessments of participation and entrepreneurship may identify techniques for supporting economic development programs (Holcombe, 2021; Yismaw, 2021).  Yismaw (2021) evaluate participation in community development programs.  Oli and Xie (2021) conduct a time-series analysis of relationships between domestic savings, investment, and economic growth.  Holcombe (2021) explores how institutions may promote entrepreneurial behaviors.  Caleiro (2021) suggests implementing measures of unemployment for assessing consumer confidence.  Pan and Khandrika (2021) suggest credit valuation adjustment models for new accounting standards required of financial institutions.  Tekletsadik, Kedir, and Amare (2021) analyze agricultural value chains for marketing costs and margins from farmers to consumers.

Improvements to municipal and regional information systems may assist negotiation in taxation and tariffs (Belayhun, 2021; Brautzsch & Holtemöller, 2021).  Belayhun (2021) examine property registration systems to increase the collection of property tax.  Brautzsch and Holtemöller (2021) explore the implementation of tariffs in regional trade agreements.





Belayhun, M. (2021). The roles of establishing real property registration system for municipal property taxation in the case of Dire Dawa, Ethioipa. Journal of World Economic Research, 10(2), 37-47.

Brautzsch, H.-U., & Holtemöller, O. (2021). International trade barriers and regional employment: the case of a no-deal Brexit. Journal of Economic Structures, 10(1), 11. doi:10.1186/s40008-021-00241-9

Caleiro, A. B. (2021). Learning to classify the consumer confidence indicator (in Portugal). Economies, 9(3), 125.

Camera, G., & Gioffré, A. (2021). The economic impact of lockdowns: A theoretical assessment. Journal of Mathematical Economics, 102552. doi:

Hensvik, L., Le Barbanchon, T., & Rathelot, R. (2021). Job search during the COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Public Economics, 194, 104349. doi:

Holcombe, R. G. (2021). Entrepreneurial economies. Economies, 9(3), 123.

Oli, S. K., & Xie, Y. (2021). Domestic savings, investment, and economic growth: An empirical evidence from Nepal using VEC Model. Journal of Economic Science Research, 04 (03).

Pan, K., & Khandrika, C. (2021). An analytical expression for credit valuation adjustment pricing with wrong-way risk. Economics, 10(3), 94-104.

Tekletsadik, N., Kedir, A., & Amare, K. (2021). Analysis of sheep value chain in Basona Werena District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia. Journal of World Economic Research, 10(2), 48-61.

Yismaw, M. (2021). Economic justification of Debre Elias – Yewula Road Project, Ethiopia. Journal of World Economic Research, 10(2), 28-36.

International trade agreements and industrialization

International trade agreements may be effective for industrialization and economic growth (Vijayasri, 2013).  Vijayasri (2013) compare advantages and disadvantages of domestic and international strategies for industrialization.  Kurihara (2011) develops a model for evaluating the promotion of international trade through international trade agreements. Shafiei (2014) compares international trade by region and its relationship with economic growth.

Sustainability standards may be a component to improving value chains in economic development (Bronckers & Gruni, 2021; Hatzigeorgiou & Lodefalk, 2021).  Hatzigeorgiou and Lodefalk (2021) describe the importance of restoring investment and value chains to support post-pandemic economic development.  Bronckers and Gruni (2021) suggest recommendations for sustainability standards in free trade agreements.

Evaluations of sustainability may support strategies for improving national business growth (Shao, 2021).  Shao (2021) explains the capabilities of international law in benefiting the public and investment arbitration system in environmental and human rights disputes.  Downing and Gracia (2021) compare the demographics of small and medium enterprises in the United States and the United Kingdom.  Xu (2021) discovered consumer preferences in ecological and food safety awareness of organic labels.  Hatzigeorgiou and Lodefalk (2021) explore how immigration affects trade, employment, and foreign investment.  Yeo and Deng (2019) compare regional organizations for economic development and trade.





Bronckers, M., & Gruni, G. (2021). Retooling the sustainability standards in EU free trade agreements. Journal of International Economic Law, 24(1), 25-51. doi:10.1093/jiel/jgab007

Downing, D., & Gracia, F. (2021). Demographic makeup of SMEs in the United States and United Kingdom.

Hatzigeorgiou, A., & Lodefalk, M. (2021). A literature review of the nexus between migration and internationalization. The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, 30(3), 319-340. doi:10.1080/09638199.2021.1878257

Kurihara, Y. (2011). The impact of regional trade agreements on international trade. Modern Economy, 2, 846-849.

Shafiei, E. (2014). International trade and its impact on economic growth. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(3).

Shao, X. (2021). Environmental and human rights counterclaims in international investment arbitration: At the crossroads of domestic and international law. Journal of International Economic Law, 24(1), 157-179. doi:10.1093/jiel/jgab001

Vijayasri, G. V. (2013). The importance of international trade in the world. International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services & Management Research, 2(9).

Xu, Y. (2021). On the country of origin effect of eco-label. Economics, 10(3), 79-86.

Yeo, A. D., & Deng, A. (2019). The trade policy effect in international trade: case of Pakistan. Journal of Economic Structures, 8(1), 43. doi:10.1186/s40008-019-0169-8

Technology and science in indices for economic growth

Recent studies have uncovered relationships between economic growth and other components (Ha, 2020).  Ha (2020) discusses problems banking systems face with credit risk and explains relationships between economic and banking sector growth.  Sachs and Schleer (2019) explore interdependent components which may influence hindrances to economic growth in industrialized countries related to employment.  Toader, Firtescu, Roman, and Anton (2018) examine the impact of information and communication technologies to influence economic growth in industrialized countries.

Rynbrandt (2016) provides an innovative perspective on the cause of astrophysical inflation as a result of forces of ultra-magnetic black holes, volume, and space.  Akoto (2019) explains the relationship between interest rates and the rate of inflation.  Bhunia (2016) suggests high interest rates can spur inflation by increasing saving and reducing business spending.  Ponzoni and Zilli (2015) explore relationships between unemployment and inflation.  Dash, Pattnaik, and Pattnaik (2014) develop an inventory model for reducing inventory costs considering price, demand, shortages, and the rate of deterioration.

Algorithms such as autoregressive integrated moving algorithms may provide tools for evaluating economic indicators (Otu, A, Jude, Ifeyinwa, & I, 2014).  Dritsaki and Petrakis (2017) provide an algorithm for forecasting inflation based on stochastic modeling.  Otu et al. (2014) similarly develop forecasting models for predicting inflation with autoregressive integrated moving averages.





Akoto, D. (2019). The relationship between interest rates and inflation in Ghana and their impact on economic growth for the period 2006-2015. Journal of Finance and Economics, 7(3), 93-99. doi:10.12691/jfe-7-3-3

Bhunia, A. (2016). How inflation and interest rates are related to economic growth? A case of India. Journal of Finance and Accounting, 4(1), 20-26. doi:10.12691/jfa-4-1-3

Dash, B., Pattnaik, M., & Pattnaik, H. (2014). The impact of promotional activities and inflationary trends on a deteriorated inventory model allowing delay in payment. Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 2(3A), 1-16. doi:10.12691/jbms-2-3A-1

Dritsaki, C., & Petrakis, L. (2017). Stochastic models for forecasting inflation rate: Empirical evidence from Greece. Journal of Finance and Economics, 5(3), 145-155. doi:10.12691/jfe-5-3-7

Ha, P. T. (2020). The determinants of the credit risk in developing countries: An empirical study on Vietnamese listed banking sector. International Journal of Econometrics and Financial Management, 8(1), 1-6. doi:10.12691/ijefm-8-1-1

Otu, O. A., A, O. G., Jude, O., Ifeyinwa, M. H., & I, I. A. (2014). Application of sarima models in modelling and forecasting Nigeria¡¯s inflation rates. American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, 2(1), 16-28. doi:10.12691/ajams-2-1-4

Ponzoni, G. A., & Zilli, J. B. (2015). Unemployment and inflation: An estimated phillips curve for Brazil (2002-2014). Journal of Finance and Economics, 3(5), 77-85. doi:10.12691/jfe-3-5-1

Rynbrandt, J. D. (2016). Novel descriptions of the big bang, inflation, galactic structure and energetic quasars. Frontiers of Astronomy Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2(1), 24-34. doi:10.12691/faac-2-1-4

Sachs, A., & Schleer, F. (2019). Labor market performance in OECD countries: The role of institutional interdependencies. International Economic Journal, 33(3), 431-454. doi:10.1080/10168737.2019.1612934

Toader, E., Firtescu, B. N., Roman, A., & Anton, S. G. (2018). Impact of information and communication technology infrastructure on economic growth: An empirical assessment for the EU countries. Sustainability, 10(10). doi:10.3390/su10103750

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