management design school
Management Design Journal

Management Design Journal

No 18 Q2 2021



Organizational risk assessment



An increase in available data, makes it easier for organizations to implement data analysis in the decision processes (Mayowa, 2020).  Mayowa (2020) discuss the benefits of data sources for informed management decisions.  Organizations that have data available to make informed decisions can also integrate data into their risk assessment models.  Models for risk assessment can also include organization behavioral models.  One example of this model, is a model for bargaining behavior (Sawa, 2020).  Sawa (2020) explore utility and prospect theories in developing a model for bargaining behavior.

Organizations can also integrate risk assessment into their innovation strategies.  The risk assessment can be broad enough to include partnerships with other organizations as these strategic partnerships are often instrumental to the success of an organization.  Alexandre Royer (2020) followed the leadership success of one organization and found the ability to develop partnerships to share the workload of innovation to be one of the advantageous components.

Human resource management may also benefit from further research on organizational risk assessment (Boon, Den Hartog, & Lepak, 2019).  Boon et al. (2019) review the literature of human resource management systems and develop frameworks to identify areas that may require further research.  Human resource management systems may include tools for supporting the organization in crisis situations.  Further research in human resource management and crisis management may improve organizational risk management (Boon et al., 2019; Bundy, Pfarrer, Short, & Coombs, 2016).  Bundy et al. (2016) explain limitations in research in large scale crisis management.

Public relations may also be a critical factor for organizational risk assessment (Morehouse, 2020).  Morehouse (2020) explores crisis communication and public relations in organizational crisis management.  A crisis communication strategy may benefit the organization internally and the relationship of the organization with the community.

Financial risk management may be a growing requirement for organizations by country regulators (Coulmont, Berthelot, & Talbot, 2020).  Coulmont et al. (2020) described the growth of countries requiring financial risk disclosures in the annual reports of companies.  Organizational financial risk management may also be integrated with financial institutional risk management systems.  The finance risk of institutions by banks may present a model for organizational financial risk management models.  For example, banks may provide different models for managing financial risk.  Erülgen, Rjoub, and Adalıer (2020) compared how large and small banks utilize foreign investments, interest income, and liquid assets.

 

 

Alexandre Royer, F. F. B., Darlan José Roman, Luccas Santin Padilha. (2020). Transformational leadership for innovation management: A case study of a company winning the Brazil's National Innovation Award. Elk Asia Pacific Journal of Leadership and Innovation Management, 6(1).

Boon, C., Den Hartog, D. N., & Lepak, D. P. (2019). A systematic review of human resource management systems and their measurement. Journal of Management, 45(6), 2498-2537. doi:10.1177/0149206318818718

Bundy, J., Pfarrer, M. D., Short, C. E., & Coombs, W. T. (2016). Crises and crisis management: Integration, interpretation, and research development. Journal of Management, 43(6), 1661-1692. doi:10.1177/0149206316680030

Coulmont, M., Berthelot, S., & Talbot, C. (2020). Risk disclosure and firm risk: Evidence from Canadian firms. Risk Governance & Control: Financial Markets & Institutions, 10(1), 52-60.

Erülgen, A., Rjoub, H., & Adalıer, A. (2020). Bank characteristics effect on capital structure: Evidence from PMG and CS-ARDL. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 13(12). doi:10.3390/jrfm13120310

Mayowa, A. O. (2020). A Basis, Data Oriented and Frame For Actionable Decision Making In Management. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 24(3).

Morehouse, J. (2020). Stakeholder-formed organizations and crisis communication: Analyzing discourse of renewal with a non-offending organization. Jornal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research, 3(2), 243–274.

Sawa, R. (2020). A prospect theory Nash bargaining solution and its stochastic stability. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2020.11.009



The pandemic and health equity



The pandemic may potentially result in the need to regulate ethical treatment and ensure health equities (Devaney, Miola, Cave, Purshouse, & Heywood, 2020; Johnson, 2020).  The pandemic may also have increased suffering for people with preexisting conditions or comorbidities (James & Jordan, 2018; Liddell et al., 2020).  Liddell et al. (2020) explore the ethics of isolating patients during the pandemic.  James and Jordan (2018)highlight that the Opioid crisis has disparingly affected minority communities.

Communities without Internet access may also suffer more during the pandemic (James & Jordan, 2018).  Bauerly, McCord, Hulkower, and Pepin (2019) explain how communities who lack broadband Internet access can face worse health outcomes during the pandemic.  Although Internet access may provide more tools for health professionals to respond to the pandemic, unregulated technology research may be a risk for the pandemic response (Rothstein et al., 2020).  Nijsingh, van Bergen, and Wild (2020) raise the ethical challenge in implementing contact tracing technologies without regulation. Rothstein et al. (2020) detail the need for greater policy development and enforcement amidst growing unregulated technology research.

The pandemic may provide the need to focus on greater global health equity (Johnson, 2020).  Devaney et al. (2020) emphasize the need for patients to be informed of the risks of treatment even during emergencies.  Johnson (2020) discusses the collaborative work necessary to ensure health equities in the pandemic.

 

 

Bauerly, B. C., McCord, R. F., Hulkower, R., & Pepin, D. (2019). Broadband access as a public health issue: The role of law in expanding broadband access and connecting underserved communities for better health outcomes. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 47(2_suppl), 39-42. doi:10.1177/1073110519857314

Devaney, S., Miola, J., Cave, E., Purshouse, C., & Heywood, R. (2020). Healthcare professional standards in pandemic conditions: The duty to obtain consent to treatment. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 17(4), 789-792. doi:10.1007/s11673-020-10048-1

James, K., & Jordan, A. (2018). The Opioid Crisis in black communities. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 46(2), 404-421. doi:10.1177/1073110518782949

Johnson, S. B. (2020). Advancing global health equity in the COVID-19 response: beyond solidarity. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 17(4), 703-707. doi:10.1007/s11673-020-10008-9

Liddell, K., Keene, A. R., Holland, A., Huppert, J., Underwood, B. R., Clark, O., & Barclay, S. I. G. (2020). Isolating residents including wandering residents in care and group homes Medical ethics and English law in the context of Covid-19. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2020.101649

Nijsingh, N., van Bergen, A., & Wild, V. (2020). Applying a precautionary approach to mobile contact tracing for COVID-19: The value of reversibility. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 17(4), 823-827. doi:10.1007/s11673-020-10004-z

Rothstein, M. A., Wilbanks, J. T., Beskow, L. M., Brelsford, K. M., Brothers, K. B., Doerr, M., . . . Tovino, S. A. (2020). Unregulated health research using mobile devices: Ethical considerations and policy recommendations. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 48(1_suppl), 196-226. doi:10.1177/1073110520917047



The pandemic and health equity



The pandemic may potentially result in the need to regulate ethical treatment and ensure health equities (Devaney, Miola, Cave, Purshouse, & Heywood, 2020; Johnson, 2020).  The pandemic may also have increased suffering for people with preexisting conditions or comorbidities (James & Jordan, 2018; Liddell et al., 2020).  Liddell et al. (2020) explore the ethics of isolating patients during the pandemic.  James and Jordan (2018)highlight that the Opioid crisis has disparingly affected minority communities.

Communities without Internet access may also suffer more during the pandemic (James & Jordan, 2018).  Bauerly, McCord, Hulkower, and Pepin (2019) explain how communities who lack broadband Internet access can face worse health outcomes during the pandemic.  Although Internet access may provide more tools for health professionals to respond to the pandemic, unregulated technology research may be a risk for the pandemic response (Rothstein et al., 2020).  Nijsingh, van Bergen, and Wild (2020) raise the ethical challenge in implementing contact tracing technologies without regulation. Rothstein et al. (2020) detail the need for greater policy development and enforcement amidst growing unregulated technology research.

The pandemic may provide the need to focus on greater global health equity (Johnson, 2020).  Devaney et al. (2020) emphasize the need for patients to be informed of the risks of treatment even during emergencies.  Johnson (2020) discusses the collaborative work necessary to ensure health equities in the pandemic.

 

 

Bauerly, B. C., McCord, R. F., Hulkower, R., & Pepin, D. (2019). Broadband access as a public health issue: The role of law in expanding broadband access and connecting underserved communities for better health outcomes. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 47(2_suppl), 39-42. doi:10.1177/1073110519857314

Devaney, S., Miola, J., Cave, E., Purshouse, C., & Heywood, R. (2020). Healthcare professional standards in pandemic conditions: The duty to obtain consent to treatment. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 17(4), 789-792. doi:10.1007/s11673-020-10048-1

James, K., & Jordan, A. (2018). The Opioid Crisis in black communities. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 46(2), 404-421. doi:10.1177/1073110518782949

Johnson, S. B. (2020). Advancing global health equity in the COVID-19 response: beyond solidarity. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 17(4), 703-707. doi:10.1007/s11673-020-10008-9

Liddell, K., Keene, A. R., Holland, A., Huppert, J., Underwood, B. R., Clark, O., & Barclay, S. I. G. (2020). Isolating residents including wandering residents in care and group homes Medical ethics and English law in the context of Covid-19. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2020.101649

Nijsingh, N., van Bergen, A., & Wild, V. (2020). Applying a precautionary approach to mobile contact tracing for COVID-19: The value of reversibility. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 17(4), 823-827. doi:10.1007/s11673-020-10004-z

Rothstein, M. A., Wilbanks, J. T., Beskow, L. M., Brelsford, K. M., Brothers, K. B., Doerr, M., . . . Tovino, S. A. (2020). Unregulated health research using mobile devices: Ethical considerations and policy recommendations. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 48(1_suppl), 196-226. doi:10.1177/1073110520917047



Regional government organizations and international criminal court systems



International criminal court systems can be critical to prohibiting crimes against humanity (Mimiko, Olaseeni, & Oluwadayisi, 2016).  Mimiko et al. (2016) describe the Rome Statute that establishes the International Criminal Court were beneficial for international criminal and humanitarian law.  Betz (2019) provides a lens for which to develop a theoretical framework for international criminal courts in the preservation of truth, goodness, and beauty.

Mimiko et al. (2016) explain that the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court broadly defines crimes against humanity to include attacks that are widespread or systematic.  Okurut and Among (2018) promote the need for impartiality among the targets of International Criminal Court when prosecuting state leaders.  Elis and Liu (2019) also describes some of the challenges to impartiality for the International Criminal Court.  Elis and Liu (2019) promotes cooperation with regional government organizations to advance international criminal courts.

Regional government organizations may oppose the application of international criminal court systems on heads of state (Hale, 2020).  Hale (2020) explain that the lack of worldwide support and support from powerful countries are hindrances to the success of the International Criminal Court.  Mude (2017) explains part of the challenge to impartiality is how sovereign immunity is applied by the International Criminal Court to heads of state.  Chipaike, Tshuma, and Hofisi (2019) encourage the participation of regional government organizations to support the International Criminal Court.  Kayitana (2015) describes the two types of immunity for international courts, functional immunity and personal immunity.  Functional immunity is immunity for official capacities and personal immunity is for roles in representing offices abroad (Kayitana, 2015).  Bådagård and Klamberg (2017) suggests that selecting a variety of low level and high level offenders and focusing on leaders may increase the respect for norms in an international criminal court.

 

 

Bådagård, L., & Klamberg, M. (2017). The gatekeeper of the ICC: Prosecutorial strategies for selecting situations and  cases at the International Criminal Court. Georgetown Journal of International Law, 639-733.

Betz, F. (2019). Theoretical metric of civilization: The case of the international court of justice. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 1-20.

Chipaike, R., Tshuma, N., & Hofisi, S. (2019). African move to withdraw from the ICC:   Assessment of issues and implications. India Quarterly, 75(3), 334-350. doi:10.1177/0974928419860918

Elis, R. J., & Liu, Y. (2019). The techniques for appeasing the tension between the International Criminal Court (ICC) and the African Union (AU). Open Journal of Political Science, 9, 703-714.

Hale, C. (2020). Does the evolution of international criminal law end with the ICC - The roaming ICC: A model international criminal court for a state-centric world of international law. Denver Journal of International Law & Policy, 34(3).

Kayitana, E. (2015). The universal jurisdiction of South African criminal courts and immunities of foreign state officials. Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, 18(7), 2562-2603.

Mimiko, M. O., Olaseeni, O. A., & Oluwadayisi, A. O. (2016). Unresolved jurisprudence of crime against humanity under Article 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Beijing Law Review, 7, 420-429.

Mude, T. (2017). Demystifying the International Criminal Court (ICC) target Africa political rhetoric. Open Journal of Political Science, 7, 178-188.

Okurut, E., & Among, H. (2018). The contentious relationship between Africa and the International Criminal Court (ICC). Journal of Law and Conflict Resolution, 10(3), 19-31.



Regional government organizations and international criminal court systems



International criminal court systems can be critical to prohibiting crimes against humanity (Mimiko, Olaseeni, & Oluwadayisi, 2016).  Mimiko et al. (2016) describe the Rome Statute that establishes the International Criminal Court were beneficial for international criminal and humanitarian law.  Betz (2019) provides a lens for which to develop a theoretical framework for international criminal courts in the preservation of truth, goodness, and beauty.

Mimiko et al. (2016) explain that the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court broadly defines crimes against humanity to include attacks that are widespread or systematic.  Okurut and Among (2018) promote the need for impartiality among the targets of International Criminal Court when prosecuting state leaders.  Elis and Liu (2019) also describes some of the challenges to impartiality for the International Criminal Court.  Elis and Liu (2019) promotes cooperation with regional government organizations to advance international criminal courts.

Regional government organizations may oppose the application of international criminal court systems on heads of state (Hale, 2020).  Hale (2020) explain that the lack of worldwide support and support from powerful countries are hindrances to the success of the International Criminal Court.  Mude (2017) explains part of the challenge to impartiality is how sovereign immunity is applied by the International Criminal Court to heads of state.  Chipaike, Tshuma, and Hofisi (2019) encourage the participation of regional government organizations to support the International Criminal Court.  Kayitana (2015) describes the two types of immunity for international courts, functional immunity and personal immunity.  Functional immunity is immunity for official capacities and personal immunity is for roles in representing offices abroad (Kayitana, 2015).  Bådagård and Klamberg (2017) suggests that selecting a variety of low level and high level offenders and focusing on leaders may increase the respect for norms in an international criminal court.

 

 

Bådagård, L., & Klamberg, M. (2017). The gatekeeper of the ICC: Prosecutorial strategies for selecting situations and  cases at the International Criminal Court. Georgetown Journal of International Law, 639-733.

Betz, F. (2019). Theoretical metric of civilization: The case of the international court of justice. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 1-20.

Chipaike, R., Tshuma, N., & Hofisi, S. (2019). African move to withdraw from the ICC:   Assessment of issues and implications. India Quarterly, 75(3), 334-350. doi:10.1177/0974928419860918

Elis, R. J., & Liu, Y. (2019). The techniques for appeasing the tension between the International Criminal Court (ICC) and the African Union (AU). Open Journal of Political Science, 9, 703-714.

Hale, C. (2020). Does the evolution of international criminal law end with the ICC - The roaming ICC: A model international criminal court for a state-centric world of international law. Denver Journal of International Law & Policy, 34(3).

Kayitana, E. (2015). The universal jurisdiction of South African criminal courts and immunities of foreign state officials. Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, 18(7), 2562-2603.

Mimiko, M. O., Olaseeni, O. A., & Oluwadayisi, A. O. (2016). Unresolved jurisprudence of crime against humanity under Article 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Beijing Law Review, 7, 420-429.

Mude, T. (2017). Demystifying the International Criminal Court (ICC) target Africa political rhetoric. Open Journal of Political Science, 7, 178-188.

Okurut, E., & Among, H. (2018). The contentious relationship between Africa and the International Criminal Court (ICC). Journal of Law and Conflict Resolution, 10(3), 19-31.



The philosophy of Kant in technology business ethics



Moral acts of kindness in business may benefit from the philosophy of Kant (Dubbink & van Liedekerke, 2020).  Dubbink and van Liedekerke (2020) propose an alignment of ethics in business to the philosophy of Kant by adhering moral acts to discipline, sacrifice, and pride.  Aliman and Kester (2020) explain how technology designers can maliciously embed distorted perception in artificial intelligence and virtual reality technologies.   Technology designers may employ decision making autonomy principles of Kant to create equipment that is not architected maliciously.  Giovagnoli (2020) prescribe a contemporary view of the Kantian notion that personal autonomy develops through self-reflection and self-determination.  The same principles may be developed to reduce corruption in multi-national technology companies.  Sartor and Beamish (2020) study public and private level corruption of multi-national corporations and propose mitigation measures.

The physics of human nature may provide the potential for community regulated governance (Matsuno, 2020).  Matsuno (2020) discusses the biological and physiological dynamics of human existence and interaction.  Miotto (2020) proposes changes to the development of regulations to motivate citizens to respect other citizens.  Burri (2020)suggests laws that are imposed on the basis of risk associated should consider the motivation as well as the responsibility.   Regulations developed and enforced by the community may have the potential of developing human centered governance.

 

 

Aliman, N.-M., & Kester, L. (2020). Facing immersive “post-truth” in AIVR? Philosophies, 5(4). doi:10.3390/philosophies5040045

Burri, S. (2020). Morally permissible risk imposition and liability to defensive harm. Law and Philosophy, 39(4), 381-408. doi:10.1007/s10982-019-09368-0

Dubbink, W., & van Liedekerke, L. (2020). Rethinking the purity of moral motives in business: Kant against moral purism. Journal of Business Ethics, 167(3), 379-393. doi:10.1007/s10551-019-04167-y

Giovagnoli, R. (2020). Personal autonomy in a post-secular society. Philosophies, 5(4). doi:10.3390/philosophies5040042

Matsuno, K. (2020). Accommodating probability to durability as facing the onset of biological phenomena from within. Philosophies, 5(4). doi:10.3390/philosophies5040047

Miotto, L. (2020). From angels to humans: Law, coercion, and the society of angels thought experiment. Law and Philosophy. doi:10.1007/s10982-020-09396-1

Sartor, M. A., & Beamish, P. W. (2020). Private sector corruption, public sector corruption and the organizational structure of foreign subsidiaries. Journal of Business Ethics, 167(4), 725-744. doi:10.1007/s10551-019-04148-1



The philosophy of Kant in technology business ethics



Moral acts of kindness in business may benefit from the philosophy of Kant (Dubbink & van Liedekerke, 2020).  Dubbink and van Liedekerke (2020) propose an alignment of ethics in business to the philosophy of Kant by adhering moral acts to discipline, sacrifice, and pride.  Aliman and Kester (2020) explain how technology designers can maliciously embed distorted perception in artificial intelligence and virtual reality technologies.   Technology designers may employ decision making autonomy principles of Kant to create equipment that is not architected maliciously.  Giovagnoli (2020) prescribe a contemporary view of the Kantian notion that personal autonomy develops through self-reflection and self-determination.  The same principles may be developed to reduce corruption in multi-national technology companies.  Sartor and Beamish (2020) study public and private level corruption of multi-national corporations and propose mitigation measures.

The physics of human nature may provide the potential for community regulated governance (Matsuno, 2020).  Matsuno (2020) discusses the biological and physiological dynamics of human existence and interaction.  Miotto (2020) proposes changes to the development of regulations to motivate citizens to respect other citizens.  Burri (2020)suggests laws that are imposed on the basis of risk associated should consider the motivation as well as the responsibility.   Regulations developed and enforced by the community may have the potential of developing human centered governance.

 

 

Aliman, N.-M., & Kester, L. (2020). Facing immersive “post-truth” in AIVR? Philosophies, 5(4). doi:10.3390/philosophies5040045

Burri, S. (2020). Morally permissible risk imposition and liability to defensive harm. Law and Philosophy, 39(4), 381-408. doi:10.1007/s10982-019-09368-0

Dubbink, W., & van Liedekerke, L. (2020). Rethinking the purity of moral motives in business: Kant against moral purism. Journal of Business Ethics, 167(3), 379-393. doi:10.1007/s10551-019-04167-y

Giovagnoli, R. (2020). Personal autonomy in a post-secular society. Philosophies, 5(4). doi:10.3390/philosophies5040042

Matsuno, K. (2020). Accommodating probability to durability as facing the onset of biological phenomena from within. Philosophies, 5(4). doi:10.3390/philosophies5040047

Miotto, L. (2020). From angels to humans: Law, coercion, and the society of angels thought experiment. Law and Philosophy. doi:10.1007/s10982-020-09396-1

Sartor, M. A., & Beamish, P. W. (2020). Private sector corruption, public sector corruption and the organizational structure of foreign subsidiaries. Journal of Business Ethics, 167(4), 725-744. doi:10.1007/s10551-019-04148-1

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